Useful Notes on the Female Reproductive Organs

(1) A pair of ovaries,

(2) Fallopian tubes,

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(3) Uterus,

(4) Vagina,

(5) Vulva.

(a) Ovaries:

The paired ovaries lie on either side of the uterus or lower part of the abdominal cavity. Each ovary is 3 cm long, bean shaped with the size of unshelled almond. The functions of the ovary are to produce eggs (ova) and hormones notably estrogens (feminizing hormone) and progesterone.

(b) Fallopian tubes (Oviducts):

These are the two tubes attached to the uterus one on either side. Each tube is about 10-12 cm in length. The fallopian tube-provides for the eggs (ova) to pass into the uterus by ciliary action. It is the site fertilization.

(c) Uterus (Womb):

It is a pear shaped hollow muscular organ situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum. It receives the fallopian tubes on either side of uterus and is capable of undergoing great enlargement.

Uterus contains developing young and expels it by muscular contraction at birth. It is the site of development of young one.

(d) Vagina:

It is a short, wide collapsible muscular tube about 9 cm long. It connects cervical canal at the upper end with the external genitalia at the lower end. Vagina internally lined by a much folded epithelial layer.

In virgins orifice (opening) of a vagina is partially closed by a membrane called hymen. Vagina secretes acidic fluid which provides first hindrance in the movement of sperms towards uterus.

The functions of vagina are to receive penis and its ejaculated semen; to act as lower part of birth canal and to act as duct for menstrual flow.

(e) Vulva (External Genitalis):

Vulva or the female external genitalis consists of pubis (monsveneris), labia majora, labia minora-clitoris, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice and biathlon’s glands.

Pubis is covered with hair at maturity; labia majora are two folds of skin containing hair, sweat glands and sebaceous glands; labia minora are small skin folds lying internal to labia majora.

At the upper junction of labia minora folds is present clitoris. It is formed of small erectile tissue and covered by prepuce (upper folds of labia minored).

Below the clitoris lies opening of urethra called urinary meatus. Vaginal orifice is the external opening of vagina. On either side of vaginal orifice present a bean shaped gland called bartholins gland. It secretes lubricating fluid.

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